綠建築手法: 太陽能光電系統

由 Mike Tsai 於 二, 2011/02/01 - 11:58pm 發表

談到綠建築,很多人都會第一個想到太陽能板,或者應該說太陽能光電系統。國內最有名的綠建築:北投圖書館,屋頂也佈滿了太陽能光電板。這類綠建築手法的應用,不但可以解決建築物遮太陽與隔熱的問題,更可以充分利用太陽的光能,可以說是非常適用於地處亞熱帶的我們。

 



太陽能光電應用的原理是利用太陽能電池(Solar Cell),透過光電轉換,可將太陽能轉換為電能並儲存,最終以電源形式輸出,應用領域及方式相當多元。一般我們現在常看到的太陽能光電系統的形式是併聯型太陽能光電系統。它的工作方式是合太陽能發電以及市電,平時由太陽能系統供電,在太陽能發電量不足時,負載才會轉換由市電供應,即將市電系統當作蓄電池。



不過,這類的系統由於設置成本較高,因此在回收年限的表現上,很難像設置省電燈具般可以短短數年便回收。也因此,政府近年也不斷補助太陽能光電系統的裝設與推動購買民間發電的作法。其中,再生能源法通過後,目前台電購買民間發電為每度電11塊左右。也因此提供了民眾裝設此類系統的誘因。

 

 



最後,補充一下設置太陽光電系統的應注意事項,有意願的民眾可以詳加規劃:
 

  • 日照充足:當地日照條件和設置點無光障害,模板架設角度以朝南傾斜。中央氣象局日照資料,台北縣、基隆、宜蘭、蘇澳等日照條件較差(年發電量未達800kWh)地區,占3.7%,餘96.3%地區為優先設置地區。
  • 週邊環境:考慮空間、鹽害雷害、風況、天候、溫度、防潮、排水及地盤狀況。
  • 建築結構:樑、柱等位置應考量載重設計,架設於外牆增加考量強度設計。
  • 電氣設備:電氣設備現況和安全,掌握建置時電氣配線與施工路徑。
  • 設置面積:1 kWp太陽能光電電池組列平均佔地面積約為10~15m2 (3~5)坪。
  • 發電與經濟性推估:台灣地區太陽電池組列(PV)系統所發之全年日平均發電量為3~4 kWh/kWp,年平均發電量1,000~1,500 kWh/kWp。從此一數據可以推算太陽能發電的每年合理回收值。

參考資料來源:環保署低碳社區計畫



最後,如果對太陽能發電板有興趣的版友,也可以參考太陽能電池跟窗戶結合的產品:

窗戶也能裝太陽能板之綠能藝術窗(薄膜太陽能電池介紹)


 

 

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